vast number of U.S. Catholics who stay away from the sacraments (and hardly
ever go to Mass) do so because they think they are in "a bad marriage."
That is, they were divorced and, without getting a declaration of nullity
from the Church, they married again. The good news is that they may very
well be in a good marriage, annulment or no. The bad news is that no one
has bothered to give them the good news.
the board members of ARCC, who, by and large, represent a mainstream in
American Catholicism, feel it is time for us to bother -- to report the
news that people who are remarried without an annulment need not stay away
from Mass and the sacraments. We feel we have a duty to bring our informed
understanding to this issue, an issue that has, up to now, been the subject
of much misunderstanding, a misunderstanding leading to needless alienation
from the Church, and a ruinous decimation (or, more accurately perhaps,
a quadrimation) of Church membership. This need not be.
priests have been doing a very good job by helping couples regularize their
so-called irregular marriages through the annulment process, and outside
that process, as well, in something called "the internal forum." But many
pastors are doing this in a quiet manner, in a mode that is decidedly unfair
to those who are not "in the know." Everyone should be in the know. We
of ARCC feel we have a duty to let them know. In the spirit of Vatican
II, we have a duty to make the Church work, for everyone, even and especially
for those who are wounded or wandering.
Fathers of Vatican II described our Church as a pilgrim Church. By that,
they meant that we have all had to make our way through history, sometimes
proudly, sometimes painfully, sometimes striding, sometimes limping, in
a not always successful effort to follow the Gospel. The war-making popes
of the late medieval era and the early renaissance limped very badly indeed.
Some led lives of luxury and licentiousness, building palaces for their
mistresses and handing on the overflow from Crusade treasuries to their
illegitimate sons and daughters. Let those of us who never limp cast the
of us limp in many ways. Some of our limping behavior has to do with our
marriages. Many of us are children of divorce ourselves. Some of us grew
up with only one, struggling parent, and, though we don't really know how
to make a good marriage (because we've never seen one, up close), we get
married. Sometimes, these marriages do not last. Sometimes, some of us
find ourselves abandoned, or locked in a marriage with a partner whom we
find "intolerably incompatible." As Anne Thurston wrote in "Living with
Ambiguity," Doctrine and Life 44 (1994): 538, "There are relationships
which become destructive for all involved and where . . . it is not possible
to talk of such marriages as 'symbolizing the union between Christ and
the Church.'" And so we get a divorce. Then, many of us (three out of four
women, five out of six men) marry again within three years -- for companionship,
for sexual intimacy and for the support that marriage provides. Sometimes
we do so in order to make a better home for our children. Are we a living
contradiction to the Catholic ideal -- that marriage is supposed to be
necessarily. As pilgrims in a pilgrim church, we pick ourselves up, we
ask ourselves what we've done wrong, and we try again. We don't want to
live alone. We'd like to have children. We'd like to be good Catholics.
And we'd still like to believe that marriage is for life. The late Paulist
Father James Young, who did a great deal of pioneering work with divorced
and remarried Catholics in the years after Vatican II, wrote in 1986: "The
remarried are not people who promote divorce. Almost unanimously, they
profess a high regard for lifelong marriage, and insist they would never
wish a divorce on anyone . . . To come close to divorced people is to look
through a painful window at the dark underside of American life and at
the many forces that make lasting marriage difficult. For most, remarriage
is a second chance to live and love again, another chance to salvage a
broken life." ("Catholic Remarriage," p. 40).
all this, we of ARCC look with some skepticism at Pope John Paul II's call
to divorced and remarried Catholics to "come home" in the year 2000 (an
invitation echoed by many bishops around the world in anticipation of the
Jubilee Year). The appeal strikes us as unrealistic, perhaps even thoughtless.
In the pope's view, many Catholics who are divorced and remarried cannot
get annulments, and, therefore, according to Church discipline, they are
unworthy to receive the Eucharist. So the pope's invitation -- "Come home"
-- has an unwritten postscript: "But don't expect to stay for supper."
believe that many of the divorced and remarried can come home, and stay
for the Lord's supper, without getting a Church annulment.
so? In the first place, the divorced and remarried are still in the Church.
It is true that, for 93 years, those in this country who remarried after
divorce were excommunicated -- in accordance with a policy set in place
by the U.S. bishops meeting at the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore in
1884. In June 1977, however, the American bishops lifted that excommunication
after they pondered a huge falling off in Church attendance, a falling
off that was also keeping the children of these couples away from the Church.
Pope Paul VI confirmed that action later in 1977 (Provost, p. 147).
the official Church position, as set forth by Pope John Paul II in his
1981 apostolic exhortation, Familiaris Consortio, n. 83, is that men and
women who are divorced and remarried (without a Church annulment) are "in
the Church," but not "in full communion with it." We believe the pope takes
this position because he wishes to avoid scandal, a notion predicated perhaps
on the opinion that any change in the Church's traditional teaching will
make us stumble in the faith. No. Quite the opposite. We believe it is
the Church's inability to make some disciplinary changes that has driven
a substantial number of otherwise good Catholics to stumble -- into institutional
indifference or alienation. The real scandal may be the unnecessary rigidity
of some pastors who are still leaning on lessons they learned in the seminary
40 years ago.
fact, reputable theologians and canonists are challenging the doctrinal
soundness and pastoral utility of barring from the sacraments many who
have remarried without an annulment. This sacramental ban, say some Church
scholars, is based on a partial reading (or perhaps no reading at all)
of the history of marriage (and remarriage) in the Church.
Church in History.
many commentators on Vatican II have pointed out, the Fathers of Vatican
II gave us a new view of the Church-in-history. They saw the Church as
ever-growing, ever-changing, and, in doing so, they helped humanize the
Church in remarkable new ways. This move was not a concession to human
weakness. It was based on the theology of the Incarnation. God chose to
enter human history, and, in so doing, told us that it was more than okay
to be human. Those who would like to see the Church bless the human, and
take a human approach to the remarriage issue like to cite the changes
that have occurred in the Church's teaching-and-practice concerning marriage
over the centuries. They say that knowing some of this history may help
us see things in a better perspective.
Martos is the author of a highly regarded work on the sacraments called
Doors to the Sacred, A Historical Introduction to Sacraments in the
Catholic Church. In that work, he writes, "During the first three centuries
of Christianity, churchmen had no legal say in the matter of marriages,
divorces, and remarriages." Furthermore, he wrote, "There was no liturgical
ceremony for marriage as there was for baptism and the Eucharist." It wasn't
until the year 400 or so, that Christians were bidden to seek an ecclesiastical
blessing on their marriages. (It is interesting to note that the only ones
obliged to do that were married bishops, married priests and married deacons.)
As far as we know, the idea of marriage as a sacrament was first proposed
by St. Augustine, the first and only patristic author to write extensively
about sex and marriage. Even after Augustine, through the seventh century,
"Christians could still get married in a purely secular ceremony." Marriage
was declared a sacrament for the first time by the Synod of Verona in 1184.
The Church didn't deem marriage definitely indissoluble until the Council
of Florence in 1439. (Martos , pp. 409-434.)
for indissolubility, Christians have always been aware of what Jesus was
remembered to have said about divorce, but we haven't been quite sure what
those words meant. A leading Catholic Biblical scholar, Raymond F. Collins,
says there are eight versions of Jesus' teaching on divorce, and there
is no easy way of identifying which one reflects that teaching in its pristine
form. (Divorce in the New Testament, pp. 213-14.)
this is a good thing. At their core, Jesus' teachings were mostly about
freedom. When he spoke of law, he usually did so to insist that we live
according to its spirit and not its letter. The one group he most inveighed
against were those Pharisees who insisted that everyone, including Jesus
himself, follow the letter of the law. When those Pharisees challenged
Jesus for healing a man on the Sabbath, he responded with great common
sense, asking "Is man for the Sabbath, or the Sabbath for man?"
the centuries, a good many Christians have been inclined to slip into a
pattern of over-interpreting "a word of the Lord," using his words in ways
that deadened his own declaration, that he had come that we may have life
and have it more abundantly. Were Jesus' words about divorce prescriptive?
According to many Catholic scholars, they were probably not. St. Paul himself
made one exception. As time passed, other Church elders (including some
of the Fathers of the Church) chewed over Jesus' words. Interpretations
grew apace. Inevitably, the interpretations were conditioned by the times.
words of Jesus in Matthew 5:32 and 19:9 were thought by early exegetes
to condone divorce in the case of adultery. Those verses led to freedom
for the innocent party to remarry. But early Church leaders made unfair
use of that interpretation. The local council of Elvira in Spain in the
early 300s prohibited a woman from remarrying if she left an unfaithful
spouse, but said nothing to prohibit a man from doing so. In the East,
Basil of Caesarea wrote in 375 that a woman who was unjustly deserted by
her husband would be regarded as an adulteress if she remarried, but a
man who was unjustly deserted by his wife could be forgiven if he remarried.
On the other hand, there are some feminist scholars today who say that
Jesus' prohibition against divorce was itself culturally-conditioned; his
condemnation of divorce was an effort to counteract an abuse he observed
among Jewish men of his time, who would divorce their wives, making them
automatically unfit for another, because, we are told, no self-respecting
Jew would marry a divorced woman.
is interesting to note how the Eastern Orthodox churches, where married
men can become priests (but not bishops), developed their own traditions.
They have a long tradition affirming that a validly contracted marriage
is dissolved only by physical death. Nevertheless, these churches recognize
divorce in the face of unbearable marital discord, which they say is a
kind of death. According to Lewis J. Patsavos, a canonist from the Greek
Orthodox Seminary of the Holy Cross in Brookline, Massachusetts, the Orthodox
Churches do not dissolve a dead marriage. Rather, the churches "formally
acknowledge that the legitimate marriage is without foundation and has
been dissolved ipso facto." The Eastern Orthodox see divorce and remarriage
as the exception, not the rule, but when they do, says Patsavos, they do
so in imitation of "the mercy and understanding exercised so profusely
by our Lord during His life."
Western Church has taken a different tack, particularly since the Council
of Trent (1545-1563) which laid down rules and regulations along lines
that would have been unrecognizable to members of the early Church, East
or West. Since Trent, the Church has publicly proclaimed the indissolubility
of marriage, a large body of law on marriage, and a correspondingly large
legal apparatus to deal with it. All the while, popes were granting divorces
to everyone but Catholics.*
than 400 years after Trent, some of the Fathers of the Second Vatican Council
(1962-1965), took issue with many of Trent's legalisms, and the Council
itself produced sixteen documents that set the Church in a new pastoral
direction. Anomalously, the Church's legal apparatus surrounding marriage
remained in place, possibly because of an unwillingness to challenge the
settlements of the last 400 years. That situation, however, is changing.
Bishops from around the world (for example, the bishops of Japan) have
been calling for less strict norms than those enunciated by Pope John Paul
II in his support of the revised 1983 Code of Canon Law. In 1994, three
of the ranking bishops in Germany issued a joint letter to their people
which said they were taking a new look at the remarriage question. They
did not argue with official Church teaching about the forever aspect of
sacramental marriage. They did say there ought to be "room for pastoral
flexibility in complex, individual cases." ("Pastoral Ministry: The Divorced
and Remarried," pp. 670-673).
view is shared by a significant number of American Catholic theologians
and canonists, according to Sister Margaret Farley, RSM, in her "Divorce,
Remarriage and Pastoral Practice," in Moral Theology, Challenges for
the Future. There, she writes:
essay, Farley cites a number of theologians and a variety of pastoral practices
that "lean strongly in the direction of allowing first efforts at marital
union (first marriages) to end and second efforts (in new marriages) to
be sustained by full participation in the sacramental life of the church."
. . [T]he polarization between opinions of many theologians and canonists
on the one hand and traditional positions taken by Vatican officials on
the other, now seems extreme. The perception of a need for change is fueled
by western culture's massive contemporary experience of the breakdown of
marital relationships and by the gradual recognition of legitimate differences
in cross-cultural interpretations of marriage and family. (p. 213)
North American Catholics, practicing or not, are hardly aware of this trend.
They don't read articles in the theological journals, the secular press
doesn't report on them, and they have been all too well trained to learn
from Rome, and only from Rome, about disputed marriage questions.
should Catholics do? First, we should grow up. Many of us have been too
ready to accept the prohibitions enunciated in Church law, and we have
been so other-directed in matters of Church discipline that we have had
a hard time making our own decisions. And we should remember that Church
laws on marriage are a matter of discipline, not dogma. One way to grow
up is to use that distinction between discipline (which is reformable)
and dogma (which isn't reformable) to assert what we believe are our rights.
are our rights? On the remarriage issue, we have the right to seek an annulment.
When we have problems with the annulment process, we also have a right
(and a duty to ourselves and our families) to explore other alternatives.
process is somewhat more lengthy than it was, thanks to some new conditions
introduced in the 1983 Code of Canon Law. Since then, decisions in one
tribunal are subject to automatic review by another, appellate, tribunal
-- which leads of course to more delays. In some other respects, the new
Code makes the annulment process easier. Tribunals can more readily accept
the word of the individual seeking an annulment, sometimes even without
the testimony of the other spouse. Tribunals are making greater and greater
use of one annulling impediment, which they term "lack of due discretion"
at the time of marriage. Many marriages that have gone awry can come under
this rubric. Under it, and 13 other causes of nullity, U.S. diocesan tribunals
are now petitioning from Rome, and receiving, some 58,000 annulments every
officials have reportedly said that 58,000 annulments is "too high a number."
We're not quite sure what "too high a number" means. Historically, Church
annulments were rare. As late as the mid-1960s, for example, only a few
hundred annulments were given throughout the world. In 1996, however, the
Church granted some 72,000 annulments, worldwide (80 percent of them to
U.S. Catholics). Too many? In human terms, as evidence of something profoundly
wrong with love-and-marriage patterns in U.S. society, we say that, yes,
that many annulments is troubling. We find ourselves even more troubled
when we hear that only an estimated ten percent of U.S. Catholics who are
eligible to apply for annulments ever do so.
about the other 90 percent? Do we simply wring our hands over all those
apparent failures and falls -- and the consequent alienation from the Church
that often follows? No. We can also do something for the 90 percent. If
the papacy isn't ready to confront this issue with any measure of realism,
we dare to speak for the wider Church. We presume to advocate a number
of things that can help otherwise faithful Catholics find a way to full
membership in our community.
of ARCC, laity and clergy alike, are ambivalent about the annulment process.
For one thing, the kind of loop-hole theology that marks the intricacies
of the process can make the Church a laughing stock. Sheila Rauch Kennedy,
an Episcopalian, spoke for many Catholics when she wrote a furious book,
Shattered Faith, attacking her husband, Joseph Kennedy, and the
Catholic Church for colluding on what she deemed a deceitful annulment
process. Sheila (and her children) obviously felt there had been a true
marriage. She wondered how the Church could dare say there wasn't? She
also believed that a Church annulment would make the children illegitimate.
That's a common notion, but it's false. The Church's actions here -- for
all the legal niceties of canon law -- have nothing to do with a child's
legitimacy in civil law. Still and all, we think the ambiguity generated
by the annulment process raises questions about the Church's honesty. We
can say, echoing a former U.S. president, "We are not crooks." But who
insisting on the annulment process in every case "may well be immoral."
The quote comes from Franciscan Father Barry Brunsman, author of New Hope
for Divorced Catholics. Why immoral? Because it's a process that can only
work for a tiny percentage of the world's Catholics. Dioceses in many nations,
says Father Barry, do not even have marriage tribunals. Some U.S. dioceses
do not have competent tribunals, and good, competent tribunals can process
only a fraction of the potential marriage cases in their area. This is
because either they do not have the time and the staff to handle the work,
or because many who qualify for annulments do not speak English or do not
have the sophistication to fill out the forms, find documents, or stay
on top of a process that can take months, and often years. Father Barry
says there are now at least 9 million U.S. Catholics in second marriages,
and the numbers are increasing every year. He wonders how the Church can
make mandatory a process that is so impossible for many. No one, according
to a long-standing moral principle, is obliged to do the impossible.
the annulment process is done properly, however, it can help those who
have the wits to understand it (and the strength to undergo it). The process
does force those who have been through it to think more seriously about
who they are and where they have come from and where they are going. And
it may help them get on with their lives more wisely. They might even feel
more secure; they will have a written declaration that assures them and
their family and friends and the larger Catholic community that they've
done the right thing. Today's Catholics might also be pleasantly surprised
(depending on where they live) to find that the people in the marriage
tribunals of their dioceses have found ways to make the annulment process
kinder and gentler and a little easier than it once was.
is, even in places where everything is up to date, declarations of nullity
still take too long. Maybe this is by design: making the process difficult
may deter many from bothering at all. But is this the proper stance for
the Church to take? We would like to feel we are members of a Church that
still tries to model itself after our Lord, who insisted there was more
joy in heaven over one returned sinner than the ninety-nine who never wandered
away. The Prodigal Son wasn't left waiting at the gate; his father came
running up the road to meet him. We do not believe that we should put a
limit (or a waiting period) on our love and acceptance of our own prodigals,
our own fellow pilgrims, who, if they still believe, should try to go on
living as Catholics, as best as they can, even and especially in a second
marriage. The annulment process used to take years, sometimes even decades.
Some must still wait 18 months, or more, for a decision. Still, we do not
think any Catholics in good faith should have to wait 18 months before
they can receive the Eucharist in good faith.
of ARCC know there are pastoral solutions available for those waiting for
an annulment, solutions that can also apply to those who are divorced and
remarried but who cannot (or will not) seek one. In the remaining portion
of this essay, we wish to outline what those pastoral solutions are, to
help Catholics with so-called irregular marriages work out their moral
dilemmas, either alone, or, better, with the assistance of their pastors
or counselors who can guide them as they try to discern their status in
the Body of Christ.
Internal Forum Solution.
is a pastoral solution that is compassionate, reasonable, and theologically
sound. It's called the "internal forum solution." Never heard of it? We're
not surprised. It has been one of the better-kept secrets in the Catholic
Church. Parish priests use it all the time, in a confidential setting,
including, sometimes, the confessional. That's why it's called "the internal
forum." (The external forum is the annulment process we've just described.)
internal forum is something private, something we work out in prayer and
reflection on the state of our own consciences. Sometimes, in order to
do that, we may need to seek the help of a priest, in or out of the sacrament
of reconciliation. Sometimes, we may seek the advice of a therapist, or
another Catholic couple, or members of our own families.
Barry says that the internal forum solution comes under canon law. He paraphrases
Canon 1116 in the 1983 Code of Canon Law:
Barry thinks that such a marriage can be considered within the Church.
He is only one of many pastoral-minded priests and bishops in the land
who hold this view. They also cite the moral principle of epikeia,
a kind of common-sense virtue which tells us when the law applies and when
it doesn't. American Catholics are, by and large, unfamiliar with this
concept. We are accustomed to seeing everything spelled out for us. Epikeia
says we shouldn't expect to see everything spelled out. Epikeia
is the Church's official way of saying, "This is the law; now use your
. .[I]f a person has a right to get married before God but cannot get access
to proper authority within one month, they can use any authority, even
just two witnesses. This is sometimes called "the desert island" canon.
It is often used when two Roman Catholics find themselves in an area without
priests because of political persecution or remoteness. Some canon lawyers
also apply this canon to the case where a couple live next door to the
rectory and has a right to get married before God but the priest refuses
to care for them. (New Hope for Divorced Catholics, p. 81)
who read the Catholic press in this country surely know there's a split
between priests and bishops who follow the letter of the law and those
who sometimes opt for common sense instead. Some do not know that there
have been many behind-the-scenes clashes on the internal forum question
among our priests and bishops, with the follow-the-law clergy on one side
and the common-sense clergy on the other. We can, however, cite some of
the recent, open clashes.
words, following their own informed consciences, according to Archbishop
Hamer, those in second marriages could return to full Eucharist life. (He
didn't say, and couldn't have meant, "only those who are living as brother-and-sister
may go to communion." If a couple wasn't having sex, why would anyone think
it scandalous that they were going to Communion?) But, said Hamer, these
couples in irregular marriages should not trouble the consciences of others
by making a big show of it. To receive the Eucharist, they might well have
to associate themselves with another parish .
1972, Bishop Robert Tracy of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, encouraged couples
in his diocese to come back to the sacraments if they were convinced that
they were truly married and that their prior marriages were either not
valid or simply dead -- even without a decision from Tracy's marriage tribunal.
We understand that at that time other bishops around the country (in Boise,
Idaho, and Portland, Oregon, to name two) were also admitting couples to
a full Eucharistic life who were exercising the internal forum solution
suggested by Bishop Tracy.
was too much for Cardinal John J. Krol of Philadelphia, then president
of the U.S. bishops. He announced that a study on this question was under
way by the newly-formed National Conference of Catholic Bishops and by
the Holy See. He referred to a letter from Rome saying that, until the
matter was decided in Rome, "dioceses are not to introduce procedures that
are contrary to current discipline." In September 1972, the NCCB's administrative
board sent the results of its study on the question to Rome.
11, 1973, Cardinal Franjo Seper, the head of the Congregation for the Doctrine
of the Faith (CDF) in Rome, wrote back to the president of the NCCB. He
spoke about the danger of any new moves (he did not mention Bishop Tracy
by name) that would undermine Church teaching on the indissolubility of
marriage. In other words, he said Rome did not approve of any changes in
"the external forum." But then he went on to urge that pastors bring divorced
and re-married Catholics back to the sacraments by "applying the approved
practice of the Church in the internal forum." What did Cardinal Seper
mean by this "approved practice?" He may have been thinking of what came
to be Canon 1116. Or he may have simply been aware that moral theologians
had been advocating the internal forum solution for centuries, according
to the principle of epikeia.
leadership of this country's National Conference of Catholic Bishops wanted
something clearer. What did Cardinal Seper mean by "the approved practice
of the Church?" On March 21, 1975, Archbishop Jerome Hamer, OP, secretary
of the CDF, delivered this response to Cardinal Krol's successor in that
elective office, Cardinal Joseph Bernardin: " . . . [T]his phrase must
be understood in the context of traditional moral theology. These couples
may be allowed to receive the sacraments on two conditions, that they try
to live according to the demands of Christian moral principles and that
they receive the sacraments in churches in which they are not known so
that they will not create any scandal."
there was a faction among the U.S. bishops that tried to get Vatican approval
of even more explicit guidelines. In 1977, an NCCB committee wrote up some
uniform procedures regarding the internal forum, proposing that all such
matters be approved by the bishop or his delegate, who would have to arrive
at a moral certitude that the couples in question were really challenging
the validity of their first marriages before they could be admitted to
the sacraments. The Vatican balked at that, pointing out that marriage
tribunals were already providing this moral certitude "in the external
forum." Asking a bishop to approve particular applications of the internal
forum was really an attempt to make the internal forum into some kind of
external forum. In attempting to keep the two forums separate, the Vatican
was giving U.S. Catholics more freedom than the NCCB committee was willing
of ARCC applaud this Vatican move to preserve the internal forum. We could
have been content to see Catholics follow "the long approved practice of
the Church in the internal forum," as cited by Cardinal Seper and Archbishop
Hamer in their responses for the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
(CDF). But we have problems with the added admonition that couples who
use the internal forum solution should receive the sacraments in churches
where they are not known, "so that they will not create any scandal." We
argue with that strategy. What would create the scandal? The spectacle
of seeing an apparently-happily-married couple going to Communion? Or the
notion that those who see them going to Communion would conclude that the
Church has changed its teaching on permanence and fidelity in marriage?
their "Notes on Moral Theology 1995, Pastoral Care of the Divorced and
Remarried," Father Kenneth R. Himes and Father James A. Coriden deny the
implication: "Even many Catholics who have undergone the torment of divorce
do not want the Church to change its teaching on permanence and fidelity
in marriage. What they seek is understanding and support for themselves
and others when their lived reality falls short of the beauty and truth
of the teaching." They add: In the CDF response... no evidence is cited
to gauge the risk of scandal that will result from permitting the remarried
to receive the Eucharist. Therefore, it is at least equally plausible that
an "across-the-board denial of the sacraments to divorced people who have
remarried gives scandal by weakening the witness of the Church to the compassion
and forgiveness of Christ" (Himes and Coriden, p 118, quoting the moral
theologian Kevin Kelly, in "Divorce and Remarriage in the Church," The
Tablet 248 (1994) p. 1374).
we suspect it is psychologically damaging for the couple in question, acting
in good conscience, to receive the Eucharist surreptitiously. The Eucharist
is part of a celebration of the community. The couple needs the acceptance
and approval of the community, that is, of the people of God. If the couple
does not experience that approval -- a testament to an expanding faith
in God's all-embracing love, a faith that looks to the power of God to
recreate everyone -- then the couple may have a hard time remaining faithful
to each other, and to the Church.
late Msgr. Stephen Kelleher, once the head of the marriage tribunal for
the Archdiocese of New York, seemed to agree with this position when he
wrote about the internal forum. (He called it the Welcome Home solution.)
is that there has been some liberalizing movement within the Church --
with many theologians and canon lawyers urging a more realistic, more pastoral
approach on the marriage-and-remarriage issue, while those of a more legal
bent (not always the pope and his advisers in Rome!) hold fast to an "ancient"
teaching, a decree of the Council of Florence in 1439. The approved authorities,
as they used to say in textbooks on moral theology, are divided.
is my conviction that once a marriage becomes irrevocably intolerable and
existentially dead, each party to the marriage, regardless of his religion,
has a clear right to divorce, to marry a second time and to be accepted
in the religious community of his choice. For the Catholic, this means
principally that he will be fully welcomed at the Eucharistic celebration,
that he may receive Holy Communion on an equal basis with other Catholics....
The Welcome Home solution is the only human and Christian solution for
our time in history. ("Divorce and Remarriage for Catholics," p. 190)
have a sense here of déjà vu. Much the same thing happened
during the birth control debates of the 1960s, when the pope's own commission
met over a four-year period to reconsider the Church's traditional ban
on contraception. The papal teaching wasn't that old at all; it went back
to 1930. The commission recommended a change in the view that contraception
was sinful in every instance. But Pope Paul VI responded in his 1968 encyclical
Humanae vitae by re-affirming the teaching of three previous popes.
By then, four years into what had become a heated worldwide debate, many
Catholics had already decided for themselves. If contraception was immoral,
then the pope couldn't give couples permission to employ it. If it wasn't
immoral, then they didn't need his permission. They made this confident
decision by following a long-standing tradition in the Church called probabilism.
If Catholics found differing opinions in the Church on any moral issue,
with reputable authorities on opposite sides, they didn't have to follow
the stricter view -- because the law was truly "in doubt." And doubtful
laws do not oblige. (See Kaiser, The Politics of Sex and Religion,
Rome keeps insisting on its rigorous opinion regarding Catholics in second
marriages. As recently as 1997, Pope John Paul II and his chief theological
adviser, Cardinal Josef Ratzinger said that those living in an irregular
union could come to the sacraments only if they lived "as brother and sister."
In other words, if they didn't make love. In this matter, we think, along
with a good many Catholic moralists, that the pope and his adviser were
perhaps forgetting the psychological and theological insights on marriage
that were worked out at the Council. The Fathers of Vatican II put lovemaking
at the heart of marriage, when they wrote, "Such love, merging the human
and divine, leads the spouses to a free and mutual gift of themselves .
. .. Such love pervades the whole of their lives. Indeed, by its generous
activity, it grows better and grows greater."
was part of a chapter on marriage in the Council's crowning document, Gaudium
et spes, a passage that vetoed the notion that looked upon marriage
as primarily a legal contract, stressing property and inheritance. As a
sacrament in Christ, marriage is a matter of a complete mutual exchange,
body and soul. The Fathers of Vatican II emphasized the deeply human character
of married love, which has "affective overtones enriching the expressions
of body and mind with a unique dignity and ennobling these expressions
as special ingredients and signs of the friendship distinctive of marriage.
This love is uniquely expressed and perfected through the marriage act."
The word "uniquely" is a rendering of the Latin word singulariter,
a word which does not mean conjugal love is expressed and completed only
through the marital act. It means that the act does this beyond all other
acts and in a way most typical of the love it expresses and completes.
Furthermore, the Council Fathers warned couples not to break off love and
intimacy when "they find themselves in circumstances where at least temporarily
the size of their families should not be increased."
other words, said the Council Fathers, there is something right about sex
if you are married. In fact, as St. Paul said in 1 Corinthians, there's
something wrong if you're married and don't have sex. Married people know
this. Married priests in the Eastern rites know this. Protestant clergy
know this. If some priests and bishops do not know this, those who are
married have a duty to help them understand.
say that faithful Catholics are mature enough to think about employing
the internal forum solution. Here's how it works. Let's say Tom was married
before. But he was divorced, and then he remarried. Let's say he married
another Catholic. Call her Matilda. Or maybe he and Matilda haven't gotten
married yet, but would like to. Tom and Matilda still believe in God, the
Father almighty, creator of heaven and earth, and in Jesus Christ, His
only son, our Lord, who was born of the Virgin Mary, crucified under Pontius
Pilate and so on. In other words, they're still Catholics. They have this
need to be right with the Lord, and they want to share in their Catholic
community's Eucharistic celebration.
they have this divorce-and-second-marriage thing, and they want the Church's
blessing, but, for any number of reasons, they cannot go through the annulment
process, or do not want to. (Some, for instance, feel the process demeaning
or an invasion of privacy, and some cannot afford the legal fees, even
though they are low, as legal fees go.) The bottom line is that their conscience
is clear about this second marriage.
may be going too fast here. How do Tom and Matilda know their conscience
is clear? Because they know Tom's first marriage is dead, and that there's
no possibility of going back to it. Tom is sorry for his inability to do
better the first time, Tom is fulfilling his legal obligations to the children
of his first marriage, and they both firmly believe that they will live
a better Christian life in this marriage, and Tom wouldn't dream of leaving
Matilda any more than Matilda would dream of leaving Tom. They believe
this marriage is good, and, so far as they can tell, something God wants
for them, now.
canon lawyers who are currently urging greater use of the internal forum
solution make a good deal out of the distinction between two kinds of previous
marriage: 1) a marriage that was "invalid" but whose invalidity is difficult
to prove before a diocesan marriage tribunal, and 2) one that was valid
but is now dead, and as non-functional as a blind man's binoculars. As
one pastor put it in James Bowman's book, Bending the Rules, "People
know there was a [first, valid] marriage. There just wasn't enough Christ
in it to make it for life." In practice, the distinctions make little difference
to those who have to make a decision in good conscience. Tom and Matilda
still have to make up their own minds that they are doing the right thing.
They may not have the legal acumen to figure out which one of the Church's
14 causes of nullity might apply in Tom's case. But they do know when marriage
number one has died. Almost from the beginning, Eastern Orthodox churches
have continued to embrace their sons and daughters who have experienced
various forms of marriage death. But there can be more than one kind of
death. Moral death takes place when the love of one of the parties
is either destroyed or ceases of its own accord after some period of time.
Certain human actions can destroy affection. Such actions as incest, murder,
violence, or betrayal can cause love to be changed into repulsion. A spouse
may disappear, go away for a long time (in body or in spirit), or plunge
into alcoholism, drug abuse or a homosexual union. In these cases, counselors
urge caution and a great deal of discernment. They ask whether there has
been a real death or merely exhaustion, temporary loss of hope, or severe
anger -- conditions that might be cured by counseling, or time, or events
that bring about a radical change in the couple's relationship.
death. There are some disorders of the mind or brain for which there
is no cure -- Alzheimer's disease, for example, or the permanent after-effects
of drug abuse. In the Western Church, healthy spouses of such terminally
ill people have a hard time persuading their pastors to apply this norm,
or giving themselves the freedom to do so without feeling some sense of
betrayal, even when they continue to provide care for their ailing spouse.
But Orthodox Christians have no such problem. Their bishops can and do
declare such marriages dead, and they will preside at a second wedding.
death. Political death takes place when a person is taken into slavery,
sentenced to life imprisonment, or chooses a political career that takes
an individual permanently from the marriage. This theory was used in the
U.S. during the time of slavery. Many slaves of Irish or French masters
wanted to become Catholics. Those who had been married in Africa, but practically
separated forever from their spouses, were given permission by Rome to
be baptized and remarried in the Church -- based on the theory of political
a point when Tom and Matilda feel secure in the judgment that Tom's first
marriage is truly dead, they have several different ways to go.
they are already re-married:
They can simply celebrate Mass, and say, with everyone else in the congregation,
"Lord, I am not worthy to receive you. Only say the word and I will be
healed." And then they march up to communion, and find the comfort in Christ's
sacramental presence that he has always wanted them to have, ever since
he presided over the Last Supper and said to the Apostles, "Do this in
memory of me." These days, priests and Eucharistic ministers will rarely
refuse communion to anyone. Canon 915 says that only those who "obstinately
persist in manifest, grave sin" should be banned from the Eucharist. It
is unwise for any ministers of the Eucharist to make that judgment. They
should know that Catholics have a right to the Eucharist, which is so much
at the heart of our faith.
reputable U.S. canon lawyers, the late Msgr. Stephen J. Kelleher and Father
Lawrence G. Wrenn, who once headed up the marriage tribunals in the Archdiocese
of New York and the Diocese of Hartford, Connecticut, respectively, have
maintained that every Catholic (even one whose first marriage has died)
retains the right to marry and a right to receive the Eucharist, even if
an annulment has not been granted. They cite canon law. Canons 213, 843.1
and 912 state the right of the faithful to the sacraments, and to the Eucharist
as Fathers Himes and Coriden, put it :The people who are the Church need
the sacraments not only because they are holy but because they are sinful.
Sacraments are not rewards for a life well lived but a means to deepen
one's love of God and desire for conversion. Restricting the sacraments
to those who are completely integrated into the life of the Church overlooks
the example of Jesus who seems to have been generous in sharing his table
with all who approached him, even public sinners. ("Pastoral Care,"
is a growing theological opinion in the Church which holds that the Lord's
Supper is for the hungry, not for those who are full. We are followers
of Jesus, who told us his Father wanted mercy, not sacrifice. And of a
Jesus who ate and drank on a regular basis with sinners. Is the Church
being unfaithful to his memory if the sinners who belong to it partake
of his body and blood in the Eucharistic banquet that he bid us repeat
in his memory?
Catholics in distress over their marital situation find any of a number
of good, compassionate and, above all, knowledgeable priests or ministers
and they tell them their situation. They tell them where they're coming
from. They tell them they want to pursue the internal forum solution. The
counselors or confessors will probably ask them some key questions, and
the couple in distress will give some honest answers. The counselors will
not wave a magic wand and say, "Okay. You're free to do whatever you want
to do." They will say, "Okay, it is your conscience. You can't play hide
and seek with God. But if you're convinced you're doing the right thing,
then come back to the Lord's Table."
second way (going to a priest, or someone in the Catholic community whose
opinion is respected) has one advantage: it may give an uncertain couple
an important sense that they are not deceiving themselves, willing as they
are to submit their judgment to the (presumably more objective) validation
they want to enter into a second marriage:
say Tom and Matilda are not married yet, but headed that way. Can they
employ the internal forum solution and ask the priest to bless them in
their prospective marriage? There's nothing wrong with their asking. There's
nothing wrong with his giving. He is accustomed to blessing homes, cars,
boats, planes, even dogs. He can bless a couple in their loving commitment
to each other. What he cannot do is bless them in a public rite that gives
the impression that he is witnessing to a new, sacramental marriage. Some
suggest that a couple can get married before a justice of the peace, and
then have the immediate family come over to the church for a quiet blessing
there. They point out that first getting married civilly and then going
to church for the priest's blessing is close to standard practice in about
70 percent of the Catholic world (in Mexico, for example, and in many Latin
because priests in the Western Church are ministers in a Church that has
no tradition of blessing marriages while the first spouse is still living
(if no annulment has been granted), we can't expect them to challenge the
official Church in a public way. They will not be able to do that until
some of the Church's best theologians prevail on a future pope and his
advisers to come up with some policies that move the Church in a more loving,
more compassionate direction. We hope the Church can find a way to hold
on to its belief that marriage should be permanent and, at the same time,
recognize that some marriages die.
of ARCC do not believe this hope is unrealistic. For more than 20 years
organizations like the Catholic Theological Society of America and the
Canon Law Society of America have been pushing for reforms in marriage
legislation. Some theologians urge the complete abolition of the annulment
system; in the meantime, they suggest that pastors make more use of the
internal forum solution.
of ARCC do not say that all those Catholics in second marriages should
or should not do anything on our say-so alone. They should think for themselves
and exercise their own consciences as members of the Church, and as the
Fathers of Vatican II bid them do in another matter, in the Council's Declaration
on Religious Liberty. We have no automatic solutions here, we wave no magic
wands. We do offer some encouraging words, words that should give heart
to many who have lost heart. We meet these people at work, we party with
them, we break bread with them at family reunions. If we talk seriously
with them about their situations, we shortly learn that they live in pain
(sometimes deeply repressed pain) because they have been made to feel they
are no longer good Catholics. "I used to be a Catholic," they will say,
sadly. But, often enough, after we get to talk to them, we find they are
better Catholics than those who would exclude them. On their face, their
second marriages seem to be more real, more loving, more fruitful than
their first marriages. Furthermore, we salute them for having the faith
and the hope and the love -- and the courage -- to try again after their
first marriage foundered. For this reason, we of ARCC dare to speak out
on behalf of these people of God, and we hope to welcome them to the Eucharistic
Leo XIII divorced two Jews so that one, married to a Catholic in a civil
ceremony, could become a Catholic and the marriage could be ratified in
the Church. In April 1924, Pius XI dissolved the marriage of a baptized
Protestant and a Jew so that the Protestant could marry a Catholic. Shortly
after that, he dissolved the marriage of a Protestant and a pagan. And,
on November 6, 1924, he divorced a non-baptized man from his Anglican wife
so he could marry a Catholic, without any mention of the man's conversion.
Pius XII went even further. In 1947, he divorced a non-baptized woman from
her Catholic husband, who had been married to her by a Catholic priest,
so that she could become a Catholic and have her marriage to another Catholic
validated. Three years later, the pope allowed the Catholic party in the
first marriage to marry again. On March 12, 1957, Pius XII dissolved the
marriage of two Moslems so that one could become a Catholic. Never before
had the Church broken the marriage of two unbaptized parties. These divorces,
or dissolutions, were granted under the so-called Pauline Privilege, or
the Petrine Privilege -- "in favor of the faith." On February 7, 1964,
Paul VI applied the Petrine Privilege by granting a divorce to a Jew who
had been married to another Jew, but was now married to a Catholic, even
though the Jew had openly stated that he did not wish to convert. "Favor
of the faith" was now being granted, apparently, for any kind of benefit
the pope would allow. For a fuller account, along with citations on these
cases, see Peter DeRosa, Vicars of Christ, the Dark Side of the Papacy.
[Return to text]
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